Cibola
Search and Rescue

Training Policy & Standards

History

Contents:

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Section I: Training Policy

Every active member of Cibola who intends to participate on missions by deploying in the field is required to meet the following criteria:
  1. Pass the test for the most recent New Mexico State Search and Rescue Field Certification.
  2. Participate in four (4) sanctioned training events every year. Specifically, members shall attend at least two trainings every six months. Members who fail to attend two (2) trainings in a given six (6) month period may return to available status by making up the missing trainings in the following period. In no event will trainings used to make up for a previous deficiency be counted towards the two trainings needed in the current period.
  3. Complete the evaluations described in Section III at least once every calendar year.
Although they are a condition of becoming an active member, maintaining currency in the evaluations described in Section III is not required of members who intend only to perform base camp duties after attaining active membership.

Members of Cibola SAR who were active at the time that State Certification was implemented are expected to have received that certification by 31 December 1997.

Members of Cibola SAR who were active as of 11 September 1997 are expected to complete successfully all the evaluations described in Section III by 31 December 1998.

New members of Cibola SAR are expected to complete all the requirements within one year of becoming prospective members. New members are also required to attend at least three meetings and two trainings in the six months prior to becoming active members.

The membership officer will maintain records which will be used to determine each member's certification currency and mission availability status.

Cibola Search and Rescue will not conduct training events solely for the benefit of other search and rescue teams. Cibola SAR may, however, invite members of other teams to our own training events for the purpose of enhancing our relationship with those teams and improving our own ability to function with other teams on search and rescue missions. When members of other teams participate in training events sponsored by Cibola SAR, they must sign the same liability waiver required of Cibola members. Members of Cibola SAR who choose to present trainings to non-members outside of sanctioned Cibola SAR training events do so as private individuals, not as agents of Cibola SAR. They are not authorized to use equipment owned by Cibola SAR for this purpose nor are they authorized to speak on behalf of Cibola SAR, its members or policies.

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Section II: Required Skills

The skills that Cibola Search and Rescue requires of all field-ready members are broken up into into six categories.

Skill categories:

  1. Search Techniques
  2. SAR Safety
  3. Land Navigation
  4. Litter Handling
  5. Communications
  6. Clothing and Gear

Category 1: Search techniques

Skill group A:

Knowledge of these topics is demonstrated by passing the most recent New Mexico SAR Field Certification test.

Each member should:

  1. be able to define Probability of Detection (POD) and Point Last Seen (PLS)
  2. be able to differentiate between two basic categories of search tactics (i.e. active and passive)
  3. be able to explain the need for practicing POD estimates at the team level
  4. be able to describe the following passive tactics
    • sound attraction
    • confinement/containment
    • waiting
  5. define the following techniques of searching
    • hasty search
    • critical and visual separation
    • Grid search (line)

Skill group B:

Proficiency in these skills is shown by participating in a field evaluation. The president will establish the evaluation according to the guidelines in the associated training standard.

Each member should:

  1. know the importance of having a positive mental attitude while searching
  2. explain how the behavior of the lost person affects search tactics
  3. be able to describe the following types of active tactics:
    • hasty search techniques
    • efficient search techniques
    • thorough search techniques
  4. understand the proper use of trail marking (trail tape)
  5. demonstrate
    • line search with visual separation
    • trail marking with trail tape
    • sound attraction
    • ability to achieve 65% POD in field exercise

Category 2: SAR Safety

Knowledge of these topics is demonstrated by passing the most recent New Mexico SAR Field Certification test.

Each member should:

Team leaders need to assess the safety of their team and team assignments. Inform the ICS staff if the assignment is inappropriate.

Search and rescue is inherently dangerous due to the circumstances involved. Risk assessment is the balancing of the needs of the mission (i.e. subjects needs) and the safety of the rescuers. Never forge ahead, neglecting dangers. Always assess the risk and contact Incident Base if there are any problems or questions.

In the event a search team encounters a "death scene" some things should be considered:

Category 3: Land Navigation

Skill group A:

Proficiency in this group of skills is demonstrated by passing the most recent New Mexico SAR Field Certification test.

Each member should:

  1. be familiar with topographical maps and the symbols on them,
  2. be able to identify and use contour lines, distinguish between magnetic and true north, determine declination, and determine distances between points on the map,
  3. be familiar with the use of both the UTM and the Lat/Lon coordinate systems, and be able to determine the coordinates of a given point on the map with either system,
  4. be able to plot a course on a map with the aid of a compass,
  5. know how to orient a map and compass to terrain, obtain and follow a simple compass bearing, obtain a back bearing and measure distance by pacing,
  6. be able to translate a course drawn on a map into magnetic bearings to be followed in the field,
  7. be able to draw a course traveled in the field using a compass onto a map,
  8. be able to plot a set of of coordinates (both UTM and Lat/Long) onto a map, and
  9. be able to turn on a GPS unit, set the proper datum, clear the track log, adjust the track log interval (if unit is capable), retrieve present position coordinates (both UTM & Lat/Long), enter coordinates (both UTM & Lat/Long) (create a waypoint in the unit), select a waypoint to-go-to, and navigate to a waypoint using the GPS unit.

Skill group B:

Proficiency in these skills is shown by participating in a field evaluation. The president will establish the evaluation according to the guidelines in the associated training standard.

Each member should demonstrate the following skills in the field:

  1. Orient a map to terrain
  2. orient a map to a compass,
  3. navigate a simple course and record distances between points of the course by pacing, resection, timing or other form of estimation to an accuracy within 25% of the actual distance between points,
  4. triangulate off of terrain using a compass to find the current location on a map (resection),
  5. determine the UTM coordinates for two given points on a map
  6. enter the two UTM coordinats into a GPS unit, and
  7. navigate from a given start point to the two waypoints, then back to the start point using a GPS unit.

Category 4: Litter Handling

Proficiency in these skills is demonstrated by participating in a field evaluation. The president will establish the evaluation according to the guidelines in the associated training standard.

Each member should:

  1. understand precautions for loading a subject into a litter
  2. understand the use of padding and protecting the subject from the environment
  3. know the three basic requirements of a system for securing the subject in the litter
  4. know how to attach haul and brake lines to the litter
  5. understand precautions and methods for attaching and removing a wheel from the litter
  6. list five types of positions tenders may assume during transport of the litter, and demonstrate appropriate rotation among these positions
  7. explain the commands stop, haul, brake, brake off, level
  8. demonstrate moving the litter beyond a "pass-through" and a "lift-over" obstacle
  9. demonstrate ability to tie the following knots and apply them in the given manner:
    • figure 8 knot
      • rewoven to secure a line to a post or litter (Figure 8 Rewoven)
      • rewoven to join two ropes of like diameter (Figure 8 Bend)
      • to form a loop in a line (Figure 8 on a bight)
    • Water knot to join two lengths of webbing
    • Double Fisherman's knot to join two ropes of dissimilar diameter
    • prussic 3-wrap
  10. be able to inspect a rope for damage before using it, and understand how to pack it into a bag to minimize tangling

Category 5: Communications

Knowledge of these topics is demonstrated by passing the most recent New Mexico SAR Field Certification test.

Each member should:

Category 6: Clothing and Gear

Satisfaction of this standard is determined by a pack breakdown and by passing the most recent New Mexico SAR Field Certification test, and a clothing and gear examination by the membership officer when the member is given an orientation. Items marked with an asterisk are required for NM Field Certification, and those without are additional items required by Cibola SAR.

Each member should:

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Section III: Testing Standard

Evaluation 1: Land Navigation

The purpose of this evaluation is to ensure that each member participating in navigation trainings has achieved the minimum set of skills. The evaluation consists of two navigation courses which trainees should walk, and tasks on that course which need to be performed satisfactorily. Responsibility for running evaluations falls to the president. The president will also devise a means by which evaluatees can navigate the course without interfering with others, and without being able to use other candidates's performance to their advantage; possibilities include laying out separate courses for each or directing different groups to navigate the points in different orders.

The GPS navigation course should:

  1. be approximately 400 meters in total length,
  2. contain two points, clearly marked with unique markings, e.g. six inch tall letters on 8.5x11 cardboard, and
  3. be over simple terrain without major obstructions.
The compass navigation course should:
  1. be between 500 and 600 meters in total length, with no more than 200 meters between any two points
  2. contain four points not in a simple geometric shape, clearly marked with unique markings, e.g. six inch tall letters on 8.5x11 cardboard.
  3. have the distances between points measured accurately
  4. be over simple terrain without major obstructions
  5. be near easily identifiable and clearly visible terrain features to facilitate resection.

Evaluation:

Each candidate will be brought to a specific location near the compass course and perform a resection using local terrain to locate this point on a topographic map of the area.

Candidates will then be given bearings from each point on the compass course. Each will walk the course and locate the markers, estimating the distance between them.

No person will be considered to have demonstrated minimal proficiency without having located all of the marked points (on both the GPS and compass courses) and estimated the distance between them to within 25% accuracy (compass course only), and resected to determine the starting point of the compass course correctly to within 200 meters.

Evaluation 2: Litter handling

The purpose of this evaluation is to ensure that each member participating in litter packaging and hauling trainings has achieved the minimum set of skills. The evaluation consists of a demonstration of appropriate techniques for securing a subject in a litter, and participation in moving the litter along a trail with obstacles. Responsibility for running evaluations would fall to the president.

The litter evaluation course should:

  1. be at least one quarter mile in total length
  2. contain a natural or man-made "pass-through" obstacle, where the litter must be moved through an opening not more than 3 feet wide
  3. contain a natural or man-made "lift-over" obstacle, where the litter wheel must be moved over a feature on the ground that is at least one foot high, and anywhere from one to five feet long in the direction of travel
  4. contain a portion of terrain on a grade of between 10 and 30 percent, which requires the use of a brake and/or haul line to control the speed of the litter

Evaluation:

Candidates should be able to demonstrate assembly of the litter.

Candidates should be able to explain techniques and concerns for moving the subject into the litter.

The candidate should be able to explain and demonstrate padding, the filling of void spaces around the subject, and appropriate protection from the environment to maximize the subject's comfort during transport.

Starting with a subject laying in an appropriately padded litter on the ground, the candidate should be able to explain and demonstrate each of the three components of the system for securing a subject in the litter. The quality of the tie-in system shall be evaluated by tilting the litter on each end and upside down, evaluating subject movement and comfort. No person will be considered to have demonstrated minimal proficiency if the tie-in system permits the subject's head or feet to touch the extreme outer rail of the litter at the head or foot, or if there is more than six inches of space between the subject's back and the litter during the tilting operation.

The candidate will participate in the transport of the loaded litter over the course described above. The candidate will participate in attaching the wheel to the litter. Each candidate will demonstrate the use of commands and rotation to keep the litter moving along the course and through obstacles.

Rope skills should also be demonstrated as part of this evaluation. Candidates will be given appropriate lengths of rope and webbing, including one long rope stored in a bag, and will demonstrate proper inspection ("flaking") of the rope for damage. Each of the required knots should be tied properly; candidates will be given three chances to demonstrate each knot. After the required knots are demonstrated, the candidate will attach the long rope to the litter in a manner appropriate for a haul or brake line. Finally, the candidate should pack the long rope back into the bag.

Evaluation 3: Search techniques

The evaluation will be divided into two parts; a team "area search" and an individual member "hasty" search. The purpose of this evaluation is to ensure that each member participating in search techniques trainings has achieved the minimum set of skills. Responsibility for running evaluations would fall to the president.

Part I. Area Search.

This portion of the evaluation consists of effective participation in a team "area search."

Candidates will be divided into teams of 4-8 new or active members, and will be instructed to search an area (based on the initial number of members signing up for the evaluation (see tables below for area sizes). The search area will be in moderate terrain and contain an unspecified number (a minimum of 15 clues will be place in the area) of clues of varying size (minimum size is 3" W x 3" L). There will be a "standard" set of clues maintain by the president that will be used for evaluations (with approval from the president, other evaluators may build their own "standard" set of clues, matching the president's clues as close as possible). The president will devise some means of assuring that each 4-8 member team is able to complete a course without interfering with other teams; this could mean anything from assigning each team to a different area to putting codes onto the clues and requiring that each team merely copy the code onto a paper at the discretion of and subject to the creativity of the president.

Teams will:

Table I-V: Tables of minutes team should be allowed given team size, area size, and visual separation. Tables based on 1 mile per hour travel rate.

Table I:
Area Size: 400' x 400' Number of Searchers: 4
Searcher Separation: 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Time: 30 min 24 min 20 min 18 min 15 min 14 min 12 min 11 min 10 min

Area Size: 445' x 445' Number of Searchers: 4
Searcher Separation: 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Time: 38 min 30 min 25 min 22 min 19 min 17 min 15 min 14 min 13 min

Area Size: 485' x 485' Number of Searchers: 4
Searcher Separation: 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Time: 45 min 36 min 30 min 26 min 23 min 20 min 18 min 16 min 15 min

Area Size: 525' x 525' Number of Searchers: 4
Searcher Separation: 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Time: 52 min 42 min 35 min 30 min 26 min 23 min 21 min 19 min 18 min

Area Size: 560' x 560' Number of Searchers: 4
Searcher Separation: 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Time: 60 min 48 min 40 min 34 min 30 min 27 min 24 min 22 min 20 min

Area Size: 600' x 600' Number of Searchers: 4
Searcher Separation: 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Time: 68 min 55 min 46 min 39 min 34 min 30 min 28 min 25 min 23 min

Area Size: 630' x 630' Number of Searchers: 4
Searcher Separation: 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Time: 75 min 60 min 50 min 43 min 38 min 34 min 30 min 28 min 25 min

Area Size: 660' x 660' Number of Searchers: 4
Searcher Separation: 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Time: 83 min 66 min 55 min 47 min 41 min 37 min 33 min 30 min 28 min

Area Size: 690' x 690' Number of Searchers: 4
Searcher Separation: 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Time: 90 min 72 min 60 min 52 min 45 min 40 min 36 min 33 min 30 min

Table II:
Area Size: 460' x 460' Number of Searchers: 5
Searcher Separation: 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Time: 30 min 24 min 20 min 17 min 15 min 14 min 12 min 11 min 10 min

Area Size: 510' x 510' Number of Searchers: 5
Searcher Separation: 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Time: 37 min 30 min 25 min 21 min 19 min 16 min 15 min 14 min 13 min

Area Size: 560' x 560' Number of Searchers: 5
Searcher Separation: 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Time: 45 min 36 min 30 min 26 min 23 min 20 min 18 min 16 min 15 min

Area Size: 610' x 610' Number of Searchers: 5
Searcher Separation: 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Time: 53 min 43 min 35 min 30 min 27 min 24 min 21 min 19 min 18 min

Area Size: 650' x 650' Number of Searchers: 5
Searcher Separation: 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Time: 60 min 48 min 40 min 34 min 30 min 27 min 24 min 22 min 20 min

Area Size: 690' x 690' Number of Searchers: 5
Searcher Separation: 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Time: 68 min 54 min 45 min 39 min 34 min 30 min 27 min 25 min 23 min

Area Size: 725' x 725' Number of Searchers: 5
Searcher Separation: 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Time: 75 min 60 min 50 min 43 min 37 min 33 min 30 min 27 min 25 min

Area Size: 760' x 760' Number of Searchers: 5
Searcher Separation: 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Time: 82 min 66 min 55 min 47 min 41 min 37 min 33 min 30 min 28 min

Area Size: 795' x 795' Number of Searchers: 5
Searcher Separation: 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Time: 90 min 72 min 60 min 52 min 45 min 40 min 36 min 33 min 30 min

Table III:
Area Size: 515' x 515' Number of Searchers: 6
Searcher Separation: 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Time: 30 min 24 min 20 min 17 min 15 min 14 min 12 min 11 min 10 min

Area Size: 575' x 575' Number of Searchers: 6
Searcher Separation: 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Time: 38 min 30 min 25 min 22 min 19 min 17 min 15 min 14 min 13 min

Area Size: 630' x 630' Number of Searchers: 6
Searcher Separation: 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Time: 45 min 36 min 30 min 26 min 23 min 20 min 18 min 17 min 15 min

Area Size: 680' x 680' Number of Searchers: 6
Searcher Separation: 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Time: 53 min 42 min 35 min 30 min 26 min 23 min 21 min 19 min 18 min

Area Size: 725' x 725' Number of Searchers: 6
Searcher Separation: 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Time: 60 min 48 min 40 min 34 min 30 min 27 min 24 min 22 min 20 min

Area Size: 770' x 770' Number of Searchers: 6
Searcher Separation: 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Time: 67 min 54 min 45 min 39 min 34 min 30 min 27 min 24 min 22 min

Area Size: 810' x 810' Number of Searchers: 6
Searcher Separation: 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Time: 75 min 60 min 50 min 43 min 37 min 33 min 30 min 27 min 25 min

Area Size: 850' x 850' Number of Searchers: 6
Searcher Separation: 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Time: 82 min 66 min 55 min 47 min 41 min 37 min 33 min 30 min 27 min

Area Size: 890' x 890' Number of Searchers: 6
Searcher Separation: 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Time: 90 min 72 min 60 min 52 min 45 min 40 min 36 min 33 min 30 min

Table IV:
Area Size: 515' x 515' Number of Searchers: 7
Searcher Separation: 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Time: 25 min 20 min 17 min 14 min 12 min 11 min 10 min 9 min 8 min

Area Size: 575' x 575' Number of Searchers: 7
Searcher Separation: 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Time: 31 min 25 min 21 min 18 min 16 min 14 min 12 min 11 min 10 min

Area Size: 630' x 630' Number of Searchers: 7
Searcher Separation: 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Time: 38 min 30 min 25 min 22 min 19 min 17 min 15 min 14 min 13 min

Area Size: 680' x 680' Number of Searchers: 7
Searcher Separation: 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Time: 44 min 35 min 29 min 25 min 22 min 20 min 18 min 16 min 15 min

Area Size: 725' x 725' Number of Searchers: 7
Searcher Separation: 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Time: 50 min 40 min 33 min 29 min 25 min 22 min 20 min 18 min 17 min

Area Size: 770' x 770' Number of Searchers: 7
Searcher Separation: 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Time: 56 min 45 min 37 min 32 min 28 min 25 min 22 min 20 min 19 min

Area Size: 810' x 810' Number of Searchers: 7
Searcher Separation: 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Time: 62 min 50 min 42 min 36 min 31 min 28 min 25 min 23 min 21 min

Area Size: 850' x 850' Number of Searchers: 7
Searcher Separation: 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Time: 68 min 55 min 46 min 39 min 34 min 30 min 27 min 25 min 23 min

Area Size: 890' x 890' Number of Searchers: 7
Searcher Separation: 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Time: 75 min 60 min 50 min 43 min 38 min 33 min 30 min 27 min 25 min

Table V:
Area Size: 515' x 515' Number of Searchers: 8
Searcher Separation: 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Time: 22 min 17 min 14 min 12 min 11 min 10 min 9 min 8 min 7 min

Area Size: 575' x 575' Number of Searchers: 8
Searcher Separation: 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Time: 27 min 22 min 18 min 15 min 14 min 12 min 11 min 10 min 9 min

Area Size: 630' x 630' Number of Searchers: 8
Searcher Separation: 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Time: 32 min 26 min 22 min 18 min 16 min 14 min 13 min 12 min 11 min

Area Size: 680' x 680' Number of Searchers: 8
Searcher Separation: 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Time: 38 min 30 min 25 min 22 min 19 min 17 min 15 min 14 min 13 min

Area Size: 725' x 725' Number of Searchers: 8
Searcher Separation: 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Time: 43 min 34 min 29 min 24 min 21 min 19 min 17 min 16 min 14 min

Area Size: 770' x 770' Number of Searchers: 8
Searcher Separation: 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Time: 48 min 39 min 32 min 28 min 24 min 22 min 19 min 18 min 16 min

Area Size: 810' x 810' Number of Searchers: 8
Searcher Separation: 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Time: 53 min 43 min 36 min 30 min 27 min 24 min 21 min 19 min 18 min

Area Size: 850' x 850' Number of Searchers: 8
Searcher Separation: 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Time: 59 min 47 min 39 min 34 min 29 min 26 min 23 min 21 min 20 min

Area Size: 890' x 890' Number of Searchers: 8
Searcher Separation: 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Time: 64 min 52 min 43 min 37 min 32 min 29 min 26 min 23 min 22 min

 

Part II. Hasty Search.

This portion of the evaluation consists on an individual member completing a "hasty" type search. It will be conducted along a well marked 880 foot path/trail. The "search area" will consist of the path/trail and an area no further than 12 feet from the center of the path/trail. All clues placed within this "search area" must be visible from the path/trail. The search area will contain an unspecified number (a minimum of 15 clues will be place in the area) of clues of varying size (minimum size is 3" W x 3" L). There will be a "standard" set of clues maintain by the president that will be used for evaluations (with approval from the president, other evaluators may build their own "standard" set of clues, matching the president's clues as close as possible). The individual has 5 minutes to search the area. The individual is not required to stay on the path/trail while conducting the search. The evaluator will walk with the individual as he/she searches the area. As the individual searches the area he/she will point out and verbalize clues as they are detected. The evaluator will record the actual number of clues detected during the search.

Upon completion of the search, (reaching the time limit of 5 minutes, or the individual terminates the search, or individual reaches the end point (no doubling back is allowed), whichever occurs first) the individual will estimate their POD; this estimate will be compared to the actual POD. If the actual POD is above 65%, and the estimate is within 25 percentage points of actual, the individual is considered to have performed the POD estimate adequately.

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Section IV: Evaluator Certification

The president, by virtue of being elected to that position by the general membership, will be presumed to be an acceptable evaluator.

The president may certify volunteers to be additional evaluators. The procedure for certifying the evaluators shall be as follows:

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Section V: Resources

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Last Modified: 04/20/15 12:41:33
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